Remediation is the process of eliminating or reducing to an acceptable level, the risk due to exposure of a receptor to a contaminant. Remediation is needed where a contaminant concentration exceeds a defined safe-threshold, such that it represents an unacceptable risk of an adverse reaction in an exposed population, environment or environmental value; this is determined through a Risk Assessment.
Remediation can involve the following:
- In-situ treatment to change/ amend the contaminant to a (more) benign form
- Ex-situ treatment though removal & off-site treatment, with possible return to site
- Soil vapour extraction, with filtration or destruction via flaring-off
- Dig-&-dump, via excavation, removal & off-site disposal, with validation & reinstatement
- Contaminated groundwater in-situ treatment, pumped recovery & treatment or disposal
- Containment via e.g. Encapsulation, soil-cover, warning-layer, or other physical barrier
- Monitored Natural Attenuation, feasibility & implementation
- Administrative Management: e.g. restriction of access to an intractable site.